11 October 2018

Centenary of End of World War I

National Memorial Arboretum (NMA)  Lichfield,Staffordshire

Date of Issue : 21 September 2018

Gibraltar Post issued two miniature sheets to commemorate the Centenary of End of World War I.

The National Memorial Arboretum (NMA) at Lichfield, Staffordshire commemorates and pays tribute to all British, Commonwealth and Allied troops who fought and died in the cause of peace and freedom in both World Wars.
The Rock of Gibraltar War Memorial located at NMA recalls the sacrifice made by Gibraltarian members of the British Armed Forces in both World Wars, and the role played by both the Rock and its civilian  population, particularly in World War II. It is carved out of a 3.5 ton piece of Limestone Rock and is dedicated to the Gibraltarians who paid the ultimate price and whose names are carved in stone on this memorial.
After an inspired visit to the National Memorial Arboretum by Gibraltarian Joe Brugada in August 2014, later assisted by designer Anselmo Torres, the Memorial was commissioned and officially unveiled by HM Government of Gibraltar on the 13th October 2015.

The military hostilities of World War One ended at 11 am on 11th November 1918 but a final diplomatic end of the war was not reached until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused.
Wilson had devised a 14 point plan that he believed would bring stability to Europe.
Open Diplomacy – There should be no secret treaties between powers

Freedom of Navigation – Seas should be free in both peace and war

Free Trade – The barriers to trade between countries such as custom duties should be removed

Multilateral Disarmament – All countries should reduce their armed forces to the lowest possible levels

Colonies – People in European colonies should have a say in their future

Russia – Russia should be allowed to operate whatever government it wanted and that government should be accepted, supported and welcomed.

Belgium – Belgium should be evacuated and restored to the situation before the war.

France – should have Alsace-Lorraine and any lands taken away during the war restored.

Italy – The Italian border should be readjusted according to nationality

National Self-Determination – The national groups in Europe should, wherever possible, be given their independence.

Romania, Montenegro and Serbia – Should be evacuated and Serbia should have an outlet to the sea

Turkey – The people of Turkey should have a say in their future

Poland – Poland should become an independent state with an outlet to the sea.

League of Nations – An assembly of all nations should be formed to protect world peace in the future.

Germany expected a treaty based on these fourteen points. However, negotiations between the ‘big four’ Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson of America did not go smoothly. Wilson believed that his fourteen points was the only way to secure everlasting peace. The French however, wanted the defeated nations to be punished severely and believed Wilson’s plan too lenient. Privately Lloyd George sided with Wilson although he was concerned about the threat from Communism, however, the British public, like Clemenceau, wanted Germany punished severely. Lloyd George knew that if he sided with Wilson he would lose the next election.

Source : Gibraltar Post

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